In 431, under the leadership of Genseric, Vandals besieged Hippone (Annaba). Berber land once again witnesses’ insurrections. Byzantines faced the same resistance. Thus, neither of them will succeed in occupying
Central Maghreb for a long period.
During the Vandal and Byzantine eras Berber traditions were reinstated throughout the newly independent
Maghreb thus leading to the establishment of Berber kingdoms in former Roman provinces, a change that was
also supported by the intrusion of Zenete nomads. Descendents of Numidians and Moors, the Paleo-Berber
Branes inhabited plains that were gradually replaced by Botr and Zenete nomads from the south and the east who
spoke a different Berber dialect. Eventually they would plant the seeds of nomadism in these formerly cultivated lands.